The Armstrong community: the foundations

“Music is so important, and that’s the main thread…. Everything I have been doing has been involved with music. ”
– Bill Armstrong at an Order of Australia acceptance gathering 2015.

The impact of recording studios, engineers and the audio industry on our music culture has been vastly overlooked until recent times. Highlighted by an article headline in the Sydney Morning Herald (2015) describing Bill Armstrong, one of Melbourne and Australia’s most influential production figures, aged 86 at the time, as “the most prolific music recorder you’ve never heard of.” His experimentation with pioneering technology, entrepreneurial nature and involvement in various aspects of the audio and music industries since the 1950’s make his studios and those he was involved with an unquestionable starting point in discussion of Melbourne’s recording history.

Despite mainstream declarations of obscurity, Armstrong is the most prominent and well-documented figure in Melbourne’s audio community and in recent years has been recognised with a number of prestigious awards. A combination of his passion for music, technology and a savvy business sense helped Armstrong establish one of the most significant studio networks in Melbourne to date. Armstrong’s monopoly of the recording market in the early years of popular music releases earned his studios the local ‘Hit Factory’ label and comparisons to Abbey Road studios. His studio complex output export quality production of Australian music to international audiences and was important in the development of Melbourne’s audio community. Armstrong’s provided a hub of learning for production personnel, pioneering a new industry who continue to work in all areas of audio and production today. He is one of the founders of the local audio industry who personally witnessed and contributed to significant technological changes in Melbourne.

The live jazz scene

Growing up in the big band era in the 1930’s Armstrong describes Melbourne as a city where the live jazz scene was thriving and a time where he developed an enormous passion for music as a young boy from the Eastern suburbs. A passion that continues today at an age when his peers have mostly retired. He presently runs a jazz label Bilarm Music that focuses on restoring and re-releasing early recordings. As one of the founders of music studio recording in Melbourne, Armstrong is able to recollect a time when recording was so new to the general public that it was somewhat of a party novelty, and one that he was able to build a lifetime career out of. His first recorder was a particular hit at social gatherings where people were highly amused at hearing their own voices played back.

Armstrong recalls visiting Royce Studios in Little Bourke St in the city during the second world war. His mother recorded a message for his older brother who was a serving soldier. It was common during these times for “Cheerios” that had been cut to acetate disc to be sent to soldiers from loved ones. The experience made a strong impression on Armstrong who as a teenager became fascinated with the possibilities of this new technology. As a student at Caulfield technical school, currently Monash University (which still had a blacksmithing shop at the time), Armstrong was inspired to build his own recorder with parts purchased from Royce studios with the help of his supportive parents. Access to a workshop through his engineering studies meant Armstrong was able to construct a self-made disc-cutting machine that became his first recorder. Audio technician, friend Neil McCrae helped build an amplifier. McCrae worked for Steans Sound Systems (later bought by the Philips company) who manufactured microphones and taught Armstrong about microphone technology.

Bill Armstrong | Recording Studios Living Archive
Bill Armstrong with the wire recorder he purchased in 1949. Image by author. (2017)
At the age of 19, he was recording friends’ jazz bands using his bedroom as a control room at the family home at 100 Darling Road, East Malvern. This was the beginnings of his journey of a lifetime centring around music and technology. By the following year in 1949 he was ready to upgrade and improve the quality of his recordings and purchased a Pyrox wire recorder made in Melbourne, to take out on location to jazz gigs. He recorded the 1949 Jazz convention at the Prahran town hall and cut acetate copies for musicians who wanted to purchase a copy. His interest in superior audio quality is a theme that resonates throughout his career. Armstrong was at the forefront of ensuring Melbourne’s recording technology was at an international standard and later after setting up his own studios, was responsible for providing the first 8-track machine to Australia. This offered unprecedented creative possibilities for musicians and the recording engineers.
Bill Armstrong | Recording Studios Living Archive
Ron Tudor, Bill Armstrong and John Farnham. 1967. Photo courtesy of Bill Armstrong

1950s-1960s: Pre-Hit Factory; Radio, introduction of television, Melbourne Olympics coverage

By 1953 Armstrong had started his own record label, Paramount. Noting the reluctance of radio stations to play Australian original music, he focused on promoting the work of local artists who were severely underrepresented. He also released records under the labels, Danceland and Magnasound. This support of local artists by audio technicians and studio owners is a common theme in the development of the Australian recording industry and in documenting Melbourne as a music city and will be explored further in this paper.

Armstrong gained his first professional audio experience in the 1950s when working for radio station 3UZ where mono recording onto tape and disc was the initial format. He also worked for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), Melbourne studios as a music producer where he would record the dance band, operate live-to-air broadcasts and a variety of other music from Broadcast House, 458-502 Lonsdale St in the city, which was at that stage operated by the Postmaster General Department (PMG). Armstrong also worked for 3UZ radio station in 1954.

The 1950’s was an active time for recording and broadcast technology with the arrival of two commercial television stations set up in time for broadcast of the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne. These were GTV 9, and HSV 7, (that sprang from the 3DB radio station now part of the Channel 7 television network). Through McCrae, Armstrong secured a role as one of the engineers for the Olympic Games and operated audio for the main stadium. Television became an important promotional tool for music as variety shows featuring music performance became enormously popular.

W&G Records

White & Gillespie Pty Ltd was a printing and engineering manufacturer established in the 1930’s in A’Beckett St in the city. The company expanded into music distribution and manufacturing and without a company recording studio, W&G would hire the services of Armstrong to outsource recording sessions for their artists. Armstrong’s self-proclaimed lack of marketing skills and passion for recording bands without considering their commercial viability are factors he attributes to his own labels going broke during this time. This meant that the new Neumann cutting machine he had on order from Europe was something he couldn’t afford to pay for.

As consultant to W&G who were looking to set up their own studio, the offer was made to purchase Armstrong’s gear and employ him as their technician and studio designer. Armstrong founded a studio for them in a church hall behind St James Cathedral on Bateman Street in West Melbourne and worked at W&G from 1956-60. His design of the first cutting machine room in the building allowed for music to be cut straight to vinyl.

Bill Armstrong in the W&G cutting room, with the Neumman disc-cutter imported from Germany. (1957) Photo Courtesy of Bill Armstrong.
Early recordings with Armstrong included young radio star Graham Kennedy who would go on to become a television celebrity, and the Graeme Bell Original Jazz Band. In the 1960’s hit songs by the Seekers and the Loved Ones, ‘The Loved One’ would be recorded at the studio under the studio management of Ron Tudor. W&G Records maintained operation until1974 when the company decided to discontinue record production after relocating to Reservoir.

Telefil recording studio (currently live music venue Memo music Hall) St Kilda

In 1961, Armstrong was asked to supervise the sound production for a company called Telefil Pty Ltd to establish a new studio at the Hoyts Memorial Theatre on Acland Street in St Kilda. Telefil had bought out Planet Records, a city-based label established by Jump Men frontman Bob Crawford with sound engineer and technician Marcus Herman in 1951. Telefil studio was large enough to fit a full orchestra and was the recording location of choice for HSV 7. Stars of the weekly variety program Sunnyside Up, including Olivia Newton-John, pre-recorded audio at Telefil for live-to-air broadcasts of the show. The Channel 9 Big Band also recorded at Telefil due to its size and acoustics. Armstrong managed technical operations at Telefil from 1961 to 1965 before starting his own studio. The controversial hit single that was initially banned for anti-religious lyrical content, Normie Rowe’s version of the Gershwin tune, It Ain’t Necessarily So, released in 1965 was recorded at Telefil by Armstrong. This song became the first number one record in both Sydney and Melbourne, by a Melbourne-based artist. Armstrong’s experience was mostly with recording jazz and orchestras so he was quick to recruit other talents to fill in his lack of confidence in recording the new rock ‘n’ roll and pop music styles that were sweeping the city. A new influx of audio talent arriving in Melbourne after post-war immigration changes provided an opportunity to lift the standard of Australian recordings through capitalising on a new skill-base that was mostly arriving from Europe.

One particular talent noted by Armstrong was that of Roger Savage, a Londoner who had worked at Olympic studios in London recording demos with Mick Jagger as well as Dusty Springfield. Savage had married an Australian girl and in January 1964 recorded a session at Telefil with Bobby and Laurie (Bobby Bright and Laurie Allen) for an original song called ‘I Belong With You’. This track topped the Melbourne music charts for two weeks and Armstrong claims it was a significant marker of when Australian recording had finally lifted its standard to rival that of international production. Prior to this, the quality of Australian recordings and record production was generally considered inferior. This shift in standard Armstrong attributes to the talents of Savage and the importation of his skill and knowledge of this new style of music recording to Melbourne.

100 Albert Rd, The makings of a Hit Factory

Armstrong Studios was officially established when a townhouse property was leased at 100 Albert Rd, South Melbourne in 1965. This would become one of the earliest independent recording spaces in Melbourne to support the launch of local song-writing talents and performers onto an international platform. Armstrong’s policy of maintaining world-class facilities and staff had the effect of attracting the highest quality musicians and projects. From its humble beginnings as a mono recording facility, the studio upgraded to new technology as soon as it became available. It housed the first 8-track tape machine in Australia (purchased in 1968) which was the first in the Southern Hemisphere and ahead of the UK and quickly upgraded to 16 and 24-track machines integrating equipment designed by local electronic engineer Graeme Thirkell. These additions allowed for more possibilities in the creative process and an edge over other studios. Record labels from other parts of the country would send their artists to Armstrong’s to record. Albert Road quickly developed the reputation of a space that attracted the best engineers, producers and talent combining to create a Hit Factory that output consecutive radio hits between 1965-75. Early recordings produced at Armstrong’s Albert Road were: Russell Morris’s, the Real Thing, and Turn Up Your Radio by the Master’s Apprentices

Armstrong outside 100 Albert Rd (1967). Courtesy of Bill Armstrong.
Armstrong outside 100 Albert Road in (1965). Courtesy of Bill Armstrong.
Armstrong successfully attracted corporate clients for jingle production which provided the bulk of income for the business before music production took over. This included the Victorian Football League theme songs (many of which are still in use today). The small spaces in the townhouse could not accommodate an entire orchestra so orchestral parts had to be recorded in sections with each group arriving one after the other to layer over each section on the multitrack machines. Armstrong quickly recruited the talents of Roger Savage who eventually became a business partner. The combination of Savage’s international rock sensibilities and Armstrong’s industry know-how were a recipe for huge success. In its first year of operation, in March 1965, Savage recorded Sydney band the Easybeats on their first visit to Melbourne playing the backing track for She’s So Fine that was a nation-wide hit song. Armstrong also attributes Savage with contributing to the education of many engineers and producers to follow. Some of the early staff pool at Albert Road included engineers Allan Pay, Ernie Rose, John Sayers and Graeme Owens, and producers Ian “Molly” Meldrum, Howard Gable, Robie Porter and Ron Tudor, with many more to follow.
Armstrong’s became an appealing option for interstate producers as well as local productions for the unrestricted creative potential of the environment at a time when studio etiquette and work environments were still being established. EMI studios in Sydney at the time had volume restrictions where a bell would go off if the studio monitors were too loud.

The popularity of the studio meant that Armstrong’s required more space, and as neighbouring rental properties became vacant (owned by the same landlord), Armstrong would take over the lease and create extra rooms to record in. Eventually Armstrong’s on Albert Road occupied 5 townhouses and a custom-built studio in the back laneway. Illegally-run telephone lines over backyard fences between these rental properties created a studio network that would deliver some of Australia’s most well-recognised popular music of the time.

180 Bank St: Building strong community

With expansion exhausted at the Albert Road premises Armstrong decided to take the financial risk of moving to a nearby old butter factory warehouse that had been vacated by a supermarket chain at 180 Bank St, South Melbourne in 1972. The size of this building meant that the multiple studio spaces at Albert Road could exist in the one complex. Finance from banks for music industry ventures were difficult even during this boom time but with the help of investors and a string of hit records to back up the viability of the business, Armstrong purchased the new premises.

This was the beginning of a decades-long history of audio production at the premises and a place that would nurture the talents of hundreds of production personnel as well as musicians. 180 Bank Street was such a significant training ground for the next generation of audio engineers that many studios that followed were founded by engineers that had flowed through doors at Bank St. Many producers and technicians that had some involvement with this space would go on to start audio production companies, advertising houses, film production companies and recording studios. This community has in many ways formed the foundations of the current audio industry in Melbourne.

Article in the ‘Go-Set’. Courtesy of Bill Armstrong collection. (1969)

AAV days

Approached by the Age to set up a studio with the pending introduction of colour television, and the recording studios only taking up a third of the building space, Armstrong sold his share of the business whilst remaining a company director until 1974. With the concept of an audio-visual component of the business as a complementary addition to the recording business, Armstrong was closely involved with the transition of the studios into Armstrong Audio Visual (AAV) purchased by the Age newspaper group. Roger Savage also remained at AAV. By the early 70’s other recording studios had established themselves in the thriving music capital such as Television City Sounds at GTV9 in Richmond, Platinum Studios in South Yarra, and Richmond Recorders. Armstrong remained with AAV for the following 3 years and moved on to develop the new Radio station 3EA. This ethnic radio station, later became part of what is now known as Special Broadcast Services (SBS).
Armstrong had ambitions to start his own music-based studios again as he observed AAV management lose interest in the music department operations. He and a business partner purchased a vacant block of land in Bank Street with the idea of creating a “music farm”, similar to the way the old Armstrong’s had been run with a bustling complex of musicians and technicians. This was not to come to fruition due to the stock-market crash of the 1980s.

Savage departed AAV in the early 1980s to freelance in film production, working on the Hollywood film Return of the Jedi. Savage’s development of film audio production techniques and during the pre-digital era after starting his own company Soundfirm in 1983 saw the development of innovative timecoding techniques that contributed to a more efficient workflow for film audio post production. His business has produced continuous award-winning soundtracks. Six of the top ten grossing Australian films of all time have soundtracks completed at these studios which has expand to three different locations currently operating from Melbourne, Sydney and Beijing.

The AAV company was less interested in the music recording department which was not attracting the income of other areas within the business and artists began to record at competing studios. The priority for the company had become corporate gigs and the lesser-paying music gigs were of little interest to the corporation. Gear had not been as regularly updated as when Armstrong was involved, and the community atmosphere was shifting as the company focused more on film and television services. The studio was to undergo another major business change with the sale of the AAV music department in the mid-1990s.

Engineer and producer Ernie Rose who had started his career at the Albert St complex with Armstrong had moved across to manage Flagstaff studios in 1974 (former W&G in West Melbourne). Platinum in South Yarra had also started to produce competitive quality product. Tom Giblin who took over as manager of Audio and Operations at AAV from 1975-79 described it as a time when competition really started to heat up.

Metropolis days

When directors decided to sell the music department at AAV it gave Ernie Rose the opportunity to return to 180 Bank St from his role at Flagstaff Studios and revive the music department which had been suffering due to fierce competition and a lag in equipment updates. Rose and former Armstrong’s peer Ian McKenzie who at that stage had bought into Platinum studios at 643 Chapel St (see Sing Sing– chapter 4), partnered in this venture and renamed the business Metropolis which continued on in the 180 Bank St building within the AAV complex. AAV eventually acquired Flagstaff Studios (former W&G) which was recording mainly jingles at the time and relocated it from West Melbourne to the Bank St AAV facility. Doug Brady also came across from Flagstaff to Bank street and would go on to produce numerous award-winning albums including the major hit, Whispering Jack by John Farnham and open his own studio Furstock that is still in operation.

180 Bank Str - Recording Studios Living Archive
180 Bank St today. Courtesy of Lilith Lane 2017.
Despite management and business restructuring, the 180 Bank Street complex consistently output a considerable amount of commercially successful music in the 40 years of its operation as a music studio. The success of Armstrong’s/AAV/Metropolis was based on the community spirit and professional development of engineers and producers in custom-designed spaces with continually updated modern equipment attracting artists, producers and engineers from all over the country and around the world. Such recognisable talent and ground-breaking work has come out of Albert Rd and 180 Bank Street and permeated mainstream Australian culture that is difficult to deny contribution this community and space has contributed to the identity of Melbourne as a music hub.

Bill Armstrong’s activities in the audio industry including the foundation of his studio and the impact that his work and the subsequent businesses stemming from this have made a significant contribution to the Melbourne recording industry and its identity as a music city. This studio complex is one of the significant spaces in Melbourne where engineers and studio owners would support new music creation through discounted rates for off-peak use. Engineers would also donate their time and energy to projects with minimal budgets to help facilitate the creation of new music recording projects.

An engineer-producer with an expansive international career, James “Jimbo” Barton describes his early career days in the Bank St complex as some of his most memorable. Thrown in the deep end by Savage who must have believed in the potential of the young teenage apprentice, under the pretence of having to leave in an emergency, Savage left Barton to find his feet to record a multi-tracked full-piece orchestra. Little did Barton realise that Savage had been keeping an eye on the young producer-in-the-making from the upper level office above the tracking space. Stories such as these indicate that Bank Street provided a significant training ground for engineers and producers. This is also emphasised by the fact that most reputable studios in Melbourne following have had a strong connection, if not direct relationship to this network. Hundreds of staff worked in the hive of activity in this building and some have gone on to also contribute significantly to the development of formal audio education in Melbourne, contributing to the identity of Victoria as an ‘Education State’ as well as Melbourne as a music city.

Bill Armstrong [Youtube video], ( 8 June 2015) accessed 4 August 2017. Footage uploaded by Fleur Armstrong. 4:32m Includes footage of Bill Armstrong (William Richard Armstrong b. 1929) speaking after acceptance of the Order of Australia.
Kylie Northover, ‘The Most Prolific music recorder you’ve never heard of’, Sydney Morning Herald, (15 November 2015), , accessed 10 August 2017.
Peter Smerdon, ‘Bill Armstrong: A Life in Audio’, Audio Engineering Society- Melbourne Section.
Ross Cockle, ‘Bill Armstrong: Audio Master’, Gas (Good Audio Sense) Magazine, Volume 1 2002, pp.22-24.
Production company owners, producers, engineers, lecturers, recording studio owners
‘Rare Collections: The Legendary Bill Armstrong’, ABC Radio National (25 August 2013) [article] , [sound recording] accessed 16 July 2017.
Northover, ‘The Most Prolific music recorder you’ve never heard of, Sydney Morning Herald.
Smerdon, ‘Bill Armstrong: A Life in Audio’. See embedded footage https://youtu.be/IB0WTfkIAcI
‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 29 September 2017)
Last Royce Recordings advertising entry in the Argus at Post Office place 1949 (moved from Little Bourke)
‘MIFF, The Coloured Girls, AroundTheWorldin80Days, Bill Armstrong’, Joy FM interview (14 August 2016), , accessed 18 July 2017.
Bill Armstrong [Youtube video], (8 June 2015) accessed 4 August 2017.
‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’. A wire recorder functions in similar way to tape except that it records audio onto thin wire making it a less bulky and a more suitable medium for portable recordings with a frequency response of up to around 8kHz.
Ross Cockle, ‘Bill Armstrong: Audio Master’, Gas (Good Audio Sense) Magazine, Volume 1 2002, pp.22-24.
This studio which was the original ABC recording studio was located on Lonsdale St at the current Melbourne Supreme Court site. The main studio was a church with other buildings around it.
Adrienne Parr, ‘Australia Post- Changing Times (1975)’, Australian Screen, (2017) [website], , accessed 20 September 2017.
Armstrong also explains that technical staff were emplyed by the PMG and music producers by the ABC.
The Postmaster-General’s Department was responsible for postal and telegraphic services in Australia from 1901-1975 and later was split into two departments, Telecom and Australia Post, the latter now current-day Telstra which was privatised in 1995.
Lucy Desoto, Australia Rocks!: Remembering the music of the 1950s-1990s, (2016) Exile Publishing, Aukland NZ. p.15
Currently the premises for Lucy Guerin Dance Company. The control room window is still visible. Previously the company’s reputation was built on their slide-ruler production.
W&G, Stationary, Art & Design Products,, accessed 17 September 2017. The mother company of W&G still exists as a technical instruments company for the education industry which harps back to its genesis as an engineering manufacturer for aircraft navigation..
John Peter Lawton written correspondence with Lilith Lane (10 October 2017). Current owner of the remaining W&G business.
Flagstaff Studios was later established in the W & G recording studio on Bateman st in the 1970’s. A jingle production house where Doug Brady, producer of John Farnham’s Whispering Jack album first learnt his music recording skills. Flagstaff would eventually relocate to 180 Bank St, South Melbourne, the second premises of Armstrong’s.
Later to become the Returned Services League premises in St Kilda and currently the MEMO Music Hall live venue behind the RSL. Memo Music Hall [website] (2017), http://www.memomusichall.com.au/about-memo/, accessed (10 September 2017).
Desoto, Australia Rocks!: Remembering the music of the 1950s-1990s, p.20
Memo Music Hall [website] (2017)
Physical address of this venue is 88 Acland Street St, entrance via Albert Street, St Kilda.
Ibid. Telefil is in the same location as the current Memo Music Hall
‘The changing face of modern Australia- 1950’s to 1970’s’, Australian Government [website] (27 April 2015) , accessed 20 October 2017.
‘Rare Collections: The Legendary Bill Armstrong’, ABC Radio National.
Ross Cockle, ‘Bill Armstrong: Audio Master’, Gas (Good Audio Sense) Magazine.
Commercials recorded at Armstrong’s include: Cigarettes at Viscount, Kent, TAA, Ansett ANA (with Farnham before Sadie) Peter Best wrote the music for this. Fanta, Coca-Cola, Tarax lemonade. Bill recorded with local band the Twilights for many commercials.
Ansett ANA holidays-TV commercial, , (Youtube, 3 April 2009, 1960’s television footage) , accessed 4 August 2017
TAA- TV Commercial “Fly the Friendly Way”, , (Youtube, 3 April 2009, 1960’s television footage) accessed 4 August 2017
Fanta soft drink: “Fancy Nancy” – Australian TV commercial , (Youtube, 6 March 2009, 1960’s television footage) accessed 4 August 2017. featuring Johnny Farnham vocals.
Later to become the Australian Football League (AFL).
‘Ross Cockle interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 5 September 2017)
Peter Smerdon, Bill Armstrong: A Life in Audio, Audio Engineering Society Melbourne division website, (2016) , accessed 5 June 2017
Jordy and David Kilby, ‘Rare Collections: The Studios of Bill Armstrong’, ABC radio, [sound recording] 16, August, 2013., Canberra. http://www.abc.net.au/local/audio/2013/08/16/3827266.htm>, accessed 3 July 2017.
‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 29 September 2017)
Peter Smerdon, ‘Bill Armstrong: A Life in Audio’, Audio Engineering Society- Melbourne Section.
Artists that recorded at Armstrong’s include: Masters Apprentices, Daddy Cool, Brian Cadd, Skyhooks, Spectrum, the Sports, Little River Band, Colleen Hewitt, Johnny Farnham, John Williamson, The Proclaimers, Dutch Tilders, The Fable Singers, Smacka Fitzgibbon and the Midnight Oil Orchestra, The Hawking Brothers, Spectrum and Renee Geyer.
Ross Cockle, ‘Bill Armstrong: Audio Master’, Gas (Good Audio Sense) Magazine.
‘Rodney Lowe interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 22 August 2017)
“There were literally hundreds of people who worked there”- Rodney Lowe engineer at Metropolis, currently of Production Alley (and GAS-Good Audio Sense prior).
Artists who recorded at AAV include: LRB, Stylus, Normie Rowe, Lobby Loyde, Split Enz, Kevin Borich, Jo Jo Zep and the Falcons, Mondo Rock, Australian Crawl, Russell Morris, The Sports, Men at Work, Birthday Party, Wendy and the Rockets, Uncanny X-Men, Men at Work, John Paul Young, Real Life, Black Sorrows, Hunters and Collectors, Kids in the Kitchen, Models, Andrew Lloyd Webber and Nick Cave & the Bad Seeds.
‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 29 September 2017)
Ibid., & ‘Doug Brady interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 22 August 2017); ‘Ross Cockle interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 5 September 2017); ‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 29 September 2017)
Studios around the time of Armstrong’s sale were TCS, Richmond Recorders, RBX
‘Bill Armstrong interviewed by Lilith Lane’
Soundfirm Pty. Ltd. [website] (2013) , accessed 20 June 2017.
< http://www.ausfilm.com.au/press/in-conversation-wtih-soundfirms-roger-savage/>
‘Tom Giblin interview’, Youtube, , (28 June 2010), , accessed 10 September 2017. Manager of Audio and Operations Manager (1975-79)
‘Tom Giblin interview’,Youtube, , (28 June 2010).
‘Doug Brady interviewed by Lilith Lane’, sound recording (unpublished Latrobe University, 22 August 2017)
Ibid. Doug Brady also worked at Fast Forward studios in Warrenwood built and designed by Dave Flett for producer engineer John French who was the main engineer at TCS studios (see chapters 2 and 3).
‘The Quick Mix: James Barton’, Audio Technology magazine, (16 July 2016), , accessed 12 August 2017.
Examples include: Sing Sing-Kaj Dahstom; Newmarket Studios and Dex Audio-Daniel Desiere and Greg Williams; Soundfirm-Roger Savage; Platinum-Ian McKenzie; Production Workshop-David Briggs; Production Alley-Rodney Lowe; Furstock-Doug Brady.
‘What is the Education State’, Victorian State Government, (7 July 2017), , accessed 10 July 2017.